I have been using Hazel in my Mac workflow for some time now. If you aren't familiar check it out at:
Hazel automates files and actions throughout my Mac. For example if I put a file with a specific file name in my downloads folder Hazel can add to Evernote or move the file to a specific folder. This is a key part of my day-to-day workflow. iOS is another story. Because iOS is a fairly closed ecosystem and products like Hazel aren't available for iOS devices and iOS does not have a local file structure there is little automation available for mobile devices.
Recently "If This Then That" (IFTTT) has launched an app for the iPhone. IFTTT is just what it says. If some condition occurs it triggers something else to happen. This used to be a web based service that could do some really amazing things. For example if weather.com detected sunset it could trigger your WeMo to turn a light on in your house. Now with the launch of the iPhone app it has added another layer of possibilities. I designed a IFTTT recipe this week that takes any new picture on my camera roll and copies it to a Dropbox folder.
What I've learned from this experience is IFTTT now has the capability of interacting with files on my iPhone and taking action with them. It's a very small start but this has the potential to be the closest alternative to Hazel for iOS devices.